It allowed us to develop into the complex global society that we are today. We are arguably more dependent on those same crop species domesticated by early man up to 10, years ago than we ever have been.
September 11, by Saugat Adhikari In the course of human evolution, at a certain point in time, the idea of living in a group with mutual understanding and dependency became a very useful and practical lifestyle.
From such small isolated groups, communities were formed. Then came the societies which in due time became a civilization.
How the human mentality and psychology led to this huge change is still a popular topic among the historians and anthropologist, and a major discussion for another day.
We are talking about the civilizations that we know, as fact, existed for real, unlike the ones that are shrouded by myths and beliefs Atlantis, Lemuria, and Rama civilizations to name a few.
To correctly map the oldest of the civilizations in a chronological order, it becomes necessary to go the very cradle of civilization. Having said that, here is a list of top 10 oldest civilizations to ever exist in the world, starting with the most recent one first.
The Incas Civilization Period: D — A. Present day Peru Current Location: Ecuador, Peru and Chile Major Highlights: This civilization flourished in the areas of present-day Ecuador, Peru, and Chile and had its administrative, military and political center located at Cusco which lies in modern-day Peru.
The Incas were devout followers of the Sun God Inti. The first Inca emperor Pachacuti transformed it from a modest village into a great city laid out in the shape of a puma.
He went to expand the tradition of ancestor worship. When the king died, his son would get all the power, but all his wealth would be distributed among his other relatives, who would in return preserve his mummy and sustain his political influence.
This significantly led to a sudden rise in power of the Incas. The Incas went on to become great builders and went on to build fortresses and sites like Machu Picchu and the city of Cusco that still stand to this day. The Aztecs Civilization Period: South-central region of pre-Columbian Mexico Current Location: Nahuatl became the major language The Aztecs came upon the scene pretty much around the time when the Incas were appearing as the powerful contenders in North America.
Around the s and early s, the people in present-day Mexico used to live in three big rival cities — Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. Aroundthese rivals created an alliance and thus the new state was brought under the rule of the Valley of Mexico.
Back then, the people preferred the name Mexica than to Aztecs. The rise of the Aztecs was within a century of the fall of another influential civilization in Mexico and Central America — the Mayans. The city of Tenochtitlan was the military power, which spearheaded the conquest of new territory.
Local governments would remain in place but was forced to pay varying amounts of tribute to the Triple Alliance. In the early s, the Aztec civilization was indeed at the height of its power.
But then, the Spanish arrived with their expansion plans. This eventually led to a huge battle between the Incas and the alliance of Spanish conquistadors and the native allies they had assembled led by the famous or rather infamous Hernan Cortes in A defeat in this decisive battle eventually led to the fall of the once famous Aztec empire.The Energy Racket.
By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game.
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Get started now! Domestication has played an enormous part in the development of humankind and material culture. It has resulted in the appearance of agriculture as a special form of animal and plant production.
It is precisely those animals and plants that became objects of agricultural activity that have undergone the greatest changes when compared with their wild ancestors. Oryza sativa was domesticated from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon roughly 10,–14, years ago.
Two main rice subspecies include indica and japonica. History of rice cultivation Rice and farming implements dating back at least 8, years have been found.
Cultivation spread down these rivers over the following 2, years. Plant domestication was arguably the single most important advancement in the history of mankind.
Once developed, agriculture spread across the globe like wild-fire. Our early ancestors unwittingly selected for traits that were easily fixed within the crop species, and as a product of their selection pressures, we now have reduced genetic.