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This was a big step forward, but hardly unexpected. As this kind of work proceeds, it continues to raise questions about ethical issues and how we should we react. What did researchers actually do?
For a number of years now we have had the ability to alter genetic material in a cell, using a technique called CRISPR.
The DNA that makes up our genome comprises long sequences of base pairs, each base indicated by one of four letters. Genetic engineering is designed to correct those mistakes.
Among other things, it has been used in experiments to make mosquitoes resistant to malariagenetically modify plants to be resistant to diseaseexplore the possibility of engineered pets and livestockand potentially treat some human diseases including HIVhemophilia and leukemia.
The theory is that focusing on non-germline cells would limit any unexpected long-term impact of genetic changes on descendants.
At the same time, this limitation means that we would have to use the technique in every generation, which affects its potential therapeutic benefit. Earlier this year, an international committee convened by the National Academy of Sciences issued a report that, while highlighting the concerns with human germline genetic engineering, laid out a series of safeguards and recommended oversight.
The report was widely regarded as opening the door to embryo-editing research. That is exactly what happened in Oregon. Although this is the first study reported in the United States, similar research has been conducted in China. Both of these problems had made scientists wary of using CRISPR to make changes in embryos that might eventually be used in a human pregnancy.
We have a ways to go before ordering up desired traits in a future baby. The research involved only early stage embryos, outside the womb, none of which was allowed to develop beyond a few days. In fact, there are a number of existing limits — both policy-based and scientific — that will create barriers to implanting an edited embryo to achieve the birth of a child.
There is a federal ban on funding gene editing research in embryos; in some states, there are also total bans on embryo researchregardless of how funded.
In addition, the implantation of an edited human embryos would be regulated under the federal human research regulationsthe Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and potentially the federal rules regarding clinical laboratory testing.
Beyond the regulatory barriers, we are a long way from having the scientific knowledge necessary to design our children.
While the Oregon experiment focused on a single gene correction to inherited diseases, there are few human traits that are controlled by one gene. Most characteristics we might be interested in designing — such as intelligence, personality, athletic or artistic or musical ability — are much more complex.
Second, while this is a significant step forward in the science regarding the use of the CRISPR technique, it is only one step. There is a long way to go between this and a cure for various disease and disorders.
But we have some time to consider the issues before the use of the technique becomes a mainstream medical practice. So what should we be concerned about?
Taking into account the cautions above, we do need to decide when and how we should use this technique. Should there be limits on the types of things you can edit in an embryo?
If so, what should they entail? These questions also involve deciding who gets to set the limits and control access to the technology.
We may also be concerned about who gets to control the subsequent research using this technology.
Should there be state or federal oversight? Keep in mind that we cannot control what happens in other countries. Even in this country it can be difficult to craft guidelines that restrict only the research someone finds objectionable, while allowing other important research to continue.
Additionally, the use of assisted reproductive technologies IVF, for example is largely unregulated in the U. Who should be able to use this technology? And who should decide? Right now most assisted reproductive technologies are available only to higher-income individuals. A handful of states mandate infertility treatment coveragebut it is very limited.For Walden graduates, commencement is a momentous occasion—as it represents hard work throughout the years culminating in an event to mark academic achievement.
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