References and Further Reading 1. Behaviorists and Behaviorisms Behaviorism, notoriously, came in various sorts and has been, also notoriously, subject to variant sortings: Views commonly styled "behavioristic" share various of the following marks: Notably, Gilbert Ryle, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and followers in the "ordinary language" tradition of analytic philosophy, while, for the most part, regarding behavioral scientific hopes as vain, hold views that are, in other respects, strongly behavioristic.
Posted on September 15, by Ozy Frantz [Content note: Some sexually explicit content. Discussion without endorsement of various forms of transphobia, homophobia, et cetera. The linked book contains much fascinating information, such as the fact that Alan turing intelligent machinery essay sexuality has been documented in almost species and that, in one study, ninety percent of observed giraffe sex was between two males.
I am not sure why animal homosexuality is so common: I am not an evolutionary biologist myself. But it suggests that the simplistic model in which fucking something other than a vagina is not selected for is incorrect. In addition, homosexuality is probably not inborn. A Swedish twin study with a sample size of found that genetic factors and shared-environment factors together explained only a third of the variance in sexual orientation, while two-thirds were explained by unshared environment.
Indeed, Spandrell admits as much, saying that we do not know the cause of gayness. Spandrell argues that female paraphiliacs do not exist because they do not usually tell researchers about being paraphiliacs.
Unfortunately, he is missing the very large confounding variable, which is that women are fucking liars about sex.
As I pointed out in my Anti-Heartiste FAQ, evidence suggests that the entire sexual partner gap between men and women is explicable by women being goddamned liars.
Spandrell challenged me in his comment section— if female paraphilia is a thing— to find cases of female death by autoerotic asphyxiation. It is true that women are less likely to die by autoerotic asphyxiation. However, women are less likely than men to masturbate, and even when they do they masturbate less often than men dodecreasing the risk of women dying through masturbation.
Given that women lie massively about sex, it is possible that families are more likely to sanitize female autoerotic asphyxiators. Finally, I hate to be the feminist who points this out to the neoreactionary, but men and women are different.
This probably extends to sexual fetishes. I admit that none of these are particularly solid arguments. However, I do have reason to believe that women have things that may be considered paraphilias.
The rise of the ebook has massively expanded the amount of porn that women read. Like I said, women are fucking liars about sex. Spandrell provides as examples: Some men are attracted to babies, others to feet, others to shoes, others to obese women, others to old women.
For instance, paranormal erotic romance is basically just a fetish for fucking vampires and werewolves. However, I suspect that female paraphilias are also going to be structurally different than male paraphilias. Literally, I have never been able to think of one that is popular and not on her list.
I suspect when one studies female paraphilias one will find primarily narrative paraphilias: While one might not consider the latter to be a paraphilia, that seems to be far more related to an androcentric definition of paraphilia than a difference in the prevalence of paraphilias between men and women per se.
Finally, let us discuss trans women. The empirical facts remain the same: All I can figure is that it is the result of a belief that we should call trans women men in order to be pointlessly upsetting to them.
The study divided autogynephiliac arousal into two categories— Autogynephiliac Interpersonal Fantasy essentially, sexual fantasies about being admired as female and the Core Autogynephilia Scale essentially, sexual fantasies about being a very sexy woman.
There was no difference between cisgender women and transgender women in the Autogynephiliac Interpersonal Fantasy scale. However, transgender women scored significantly higher on the Core Autogynephilia Scale. To put it bluntly, this makes no goddamned sense.
Cis women are just as likely as trans women to have a particular subtype of autogynephilia, but less likely to have autogynephilia itself?
Let us look at the Core Autogynephilia Scale a little more closely. The study authors modified the scale so that the cis woman population were asked if they have ever sexually fantasized about themselves having attractive or more attractive female body parts. However, imagine that you have a vagina and you have sexual fantasies in which you have a vagina.
Now imagine that you have a penis and you have sexual fantasies in which you have a vagina. This is contrary to expectations. Women are often erotically aroused by dressing in lingerie and wearing makeup; women are erotically aroused by looking at themselves naked; women have sexual fantasies in which they have vulvas; for that matter, women are erotically aroused by imagining themselves as sexier than they are.
It does not explain the autogynephilia anecdotes, as one assumes it is quite uncommon for cis women to be aroused by the idea of knitting, but those seem to be selected for vividness rather than for representationality.Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the political philosophy of Hannah Arendt.
She developed many of her ideas in response to the rise of totalitarianism in the C20th, partly informed by her own experience as a Jew in Nazi Germany before her escape to France and then America.
Alan Turning is known to be a pioneer of many facets of the computer age. The digital computer, artificial intelligence, memory subroutines, the Turning Machine, the Turing Test, and the application of algorithms to computers are all ideas somehow related to this man/5(5).
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. The paper, published in in Mind, was the first to introduce his concept of what is now known as the Turing test to the general public. Alan Turing, (public domain) Over the intervening decades, people explored Turing’s landscape widely.
In their influential textbook on AI, Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig categorize these explorations based on whether the machines are thinking or acting, humanly or rationally (since rationality is an ideal that humans never achieve!).
. [Content note: Gender, relationships, sexuality. Some sexually explicit content. Discussion without endorsement of various forms of transphobia, homophobia, et cetera.
läsdagbok. Läsdagboken är från oktober och framåt. Ångrar djupt att jag inte började med det här för år sedan. Läser drygt böcker om året tydligen, och det måste ju betyda att det roar mig på något sätt.