Summary This work describes the history of the Cyrillic alphabet, which is one of the oldest, and one of the most widespread alphabets in the world nowadays, from its creation at the end of the 9th century AD to present-day times. At the beginning, the author discusses the name of the alphabet, its probable creators, and the period it was created in during the First Bulgarian Kingdom, as well as the model for the alphabet.
Morphology[ edit ] Georgian is an agglutinative language. There are certain prefixes and suffixes that are joined together in order to build a verb. In some cases, there can be up to eight different morphemes in one verb at the same time. An example can be ageshenebinat "you pl had built".
The verb can be broken down to parts: Each morpheme here contributes to the meaning of the verb tense or the person who has performed the verb. The verb conjugation also exhibits polypersonalism ; a verb may potentially include morphemes representing both the subject and the object.
Morphophonology[ edit ] In Georgian morphophonologysyncope is a common phenomenon. When a suffix especially the plural suffix -eb- is attached to a word which has either of the vowels a or e in the last syllable, this vowel is, in most words, lost.
For example, megobari means "friend". Inflection[ edit ] Georgian has seven noun cases: An interesting feature of Georgian is that, while the subject of a sentence is generally in the nominative case, and the object is in the accusative case or dativein Georgian, one can find this reversed in many situations this depends mainly on the character of the verb.
This is called the dative construction. In the past tense of the transitive verbs, and in the present tense of the verb "to know", the subject is in the ergative case.
Syntax[ edit ] Georgian is a left-branching language, in which adjectives precede nouns, possessors precede possessions, objects normally precede verbs, and postpositions are used instead of prepositions.
Each postposition whether a suffix or a separate word requires the modified noun to be in a specific case. This is similar to the way prepositions govern specific cases in many Indo-European languages such as GermanLatinor Russian.
Georgian is a pro-drop language: A study by Skopeteas et al. A subject—object—verb SOV word order is common in idiomatic expressions and when the focus of a sentence is on the object. A subject—verb—object SVO word order is common when the focus is on the subject, or in longer sentences.
Georgian has no articles. Therefore, for example, "guest", "a guest" and "the guest" are said in the same way. In relative clauseshowever, it is possible to establish the meaning of the definite article through use of some particles.
By using a root, and adding some definite prefixes and suffixes, one can derive many nouns and adjectives from the root. For example, from the root -kartv- the following words can be derived: The ending -eli is a particle of nobility, equivalent to French de, German von or Polish -ski.
Georgian has a vigesimal numeric system like Basque or French, based on the counting system of In order to express a number greater than 20 and less thanfirst the number of 20s in the number is stated and the remaining number is added. One of the most important Georgian dictionaries is the Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language Georgian: It consists of eight volumes and aboutwords.
It was produced between andby a team of linguists under the direction of Arnold Chikobava. Word formations[ edit ] Georgian has a word derivation system, which allows the derivation of nouns from verb roots both with prefixes and suffixes, for example: From the root -tsa- "give"the word gadatsema "broadcast" is derived.
From the root -tsda- "try"the word gamotsda "exam" is derived. From the root -gav- "resemble"the words msgavsi "similar" and msgavseba "similarity" are derived. From the root -shen- "build"the word shenoba "building" is derived.
From the root -tskh- "bake"the word namtskhvari "cake" is derived. From the root -tsiv- "cold"the word matsivari "refrigerator" is derived. From the root -pr- "fly"the words tvitmprinavi "plane" and aprena "take-off" are derived.
It is also possible to derive verbs from nouns: From the noun -omi- "war"the verb omob "wage war" is derived.Eventually the two older alphabets fell out of use and Mkhedruli became the sole alphabet used to write Georgian.
However, in the writings of a linguist called Akaki Shanidze () and in works written in his honour, letters from the Asomtavruli alphabet are used to mark proper names and the beginning of sentences.
Related WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Noun 1. alphabetic character - the conventional characters of the alphabet used to represent speech; "his grandmother taught him his letters" letter of the alphabet, letter spelling - forming words with letters according to the principles underlying accepted usage alphabet - a character set that includes letters and is used to write a.
Philipp Ammon studies Caucasus, Caucasus Politics, and North Caucasus. Skip to main content Kievan Rus', Old Georgian, History of Georgian Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Medieval church architecture to illustrate the cultural and historical significance of the graphematic changes of the more than thousand-year-old Slavonic writing.
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.. The usual name of the script is given first; the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows (in brackets), particularly in the case where the language name differs from the script .
The English alphabet has a fascinating history, and the development of each letter of the alphabet has its own story. Although English is widely spoken, for the non-English speakers, the English language is one of the most difficult languages to learn.
Kannada's writing system evolved from Proto-Kannada to Pre-Old Kannada, Old Kannada, and then the current Kannada script. Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken .