Idso, your paper ' Ultra-enhanced spring branch growth in CO2-enriched trees: Is this an accurate representation of your paper? The papers examined how the rise in atmospheric CO2 could be inducing a phase advance in the spring portion of the atmosphere's seasonal CO2 cycle. Other literature had previously claimed a measured advance was due to rising temperatures, but we showed that it was quite likely the rise in atmospheric CO2 itself was responsible for the lion's share of the change.
This module was supported by National Science Foundation Grants and Empirical claims An epistemology is a theory of knowledge. Modern science is predicated on the epistemological view called empiricism. According to this view, we are not born knowing anything about "the world.
But insofar as knowing that anything is true, empiricists believe that the mind is a "blank slate" -- or "tabla rasa" -- echoing the view championed by the empiricist philosopher John Locke in his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding So, if we are not born with knowledge about the world, how is it acquired?
In a word, experience -- from our observations and perceptions, as well as those of others. Knowledge gained through experience is called empirical knowledge. Science contributes to our empirical knowledge by providing the theoretical frameworks and research methods within which we are able to describe, to explain, and to predict the nature of "the world" successfully.
And make no mistake about it. Science has been very successful. Yet despite the deep understanding of the world that we have gained through science, there is an important feature of empirical knowledge that is worth noting at the outset. It is expressed as the claim in the following argument: So, what should we conclude from this?
That we do not know anything about the world? That science is unreliable? That we should not believe what science textbooks teach us? It may be comforting to hear that none of these things follow.
But to see why this is so, you need to understand something about empirical claims -- assertions about how the world was, is, or will be. And the first thing to note is that every empirical claim is a contingent statement -- an assertion that is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.
And whether a contingent statement is true depends on or is "contingent" upon whether what it asserts accords with the way the "the world" is. To put it baldly, if what a contingent statement asserts corresponds to "the world" in terms of either meaning for words or reference for objectsthen the statement is true.
If this correspondence is not present, then the statement is false. While this accounts for whether a contingent statement or empirical claim is true, it does not account for how we know it.
Since our knowledge about the world empirical knowledge depends on our ability to tell whether a contingent statement is true, a great deal hinges upon the answer to this question: How do we know whether an empirical claim is true or false?
Experience provides us with the evidence justification for believing that certain statements about the world are true while others are false. For example, consider the following empirical claim: Is this claim true?
Yes, we believe so. How do we know? Well, for starters, there has not been a single documented case in human history where an individual lost her brain and continued to live. And since experience has also taught us that brains regulate the respiratory and other bodily systems that are necessary for life, the evidence for the truth of this claim is overwhelming.
However, does all our "overwhelming" evidence guarantee that this claim will remain true in the future? After all, in much the same way that we can now replace a "real" heart with an artificial one, is it not possible that we could one day replace a "real" brain with an artificial one?
The point is not whether such a procedure is probable, but whether it is possible. Hence, the above claim is neither necessarily true nor guaranteed to be true.
Given what we know about human history and the present state of brain transplant technology, the above claim is true. But it could one day turn out to be false. Here is the rub: The reason for this is that no accumulation of empirical evidence experience will EVER guarantee that events in the future will occur as they have in the past.
Consequently, not one empirical claim or "fact" about anything in the world is guaranteed to be true. This lack of a guarantee is called the problem of induction.The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, and 63% say they need this to come to a firm view on the issue and what it means for them.
Nonetheless, one argument against global warming says that rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and other greenhouse gases.
Introduction CA: Philosophy and Theology.
CA Ethics. CA Evolution is the foundation of an immoral worldview. CA Crime rates etc. have increased since evolution began to be taught.
Scientists claim to have settled argument over why our knuckles crack using MRI video We are no longer accepting comments on this article. 'The America of John McCain has no need to be.
The Standard Argument has two parts. First, if determinism is the case, the will is not free. We call this the Determinism Objection. Second, if indeterminism and real chance exist, our will would not be in our control, we could not be responsible for random actions.
We call this the Randomness Objection. Nine out of ten people in the United States claim this bill is a bad idea; therefore, this bill is bad for the people. no one can complain about it.
(It is good.) See also Argument from Ignorance; Explanation The argumentum ad populum can be a valid argument in inductive logic;. Many consider the argument for God from contingency to be one of the strongest. The basic form is simple: If something exists, there must exist what it takes for that thing to exist.
The universe—the collection of beings in space and time—exists. Therefore, there must exist what it takes for th.