One informal analysis suggests short first names are strongly correlated with higher salaries. They are bad in several ways, and modern glyphs are little better.
Love Finds Andy Hardy, USA In film buff histories, the retrospective compilations produced for awards shows, and in commentary on youth culture, there are two commonly cited histories for teen film.
One begins in the s and the other in the s. In this essay I want to problematise both approaches and contribute to the history they jointly sketch by thinking about what adolescence meant in cinema before the s. But a sense at what is at stake in these competing claims will serve as a useful starting point.
The idea that teen film is an invention of the s—part of the Western emergence of youth culture after the Second World War—is a popular one. Jon Savage puts the argument this way: The Juvenilization of American Movies in the s is a highly influential example of this argument, analysing an extensive archive of films and the media circulating around them.
He links this to changed economic relations between studios and theatres but also to forces more intimately connected with adolescence, such as post-war suburbanization and the rise of television, which extended the significance of the family home Doherty, Teenagers and Teenpics Amidst these influences, the teenager appeared as both exciting film content and reliable filmgoer.
For Timothy Shary, the s is a renaissance period for teen film largely produced by the multi-screen movie theatre.
The multiplex clarified a returning adolescent demographic to whom more and more varied teen films should be addressed. The techniques by which the film industry exploited this audience also recalls the commodified youth culture Doherty identified in the s but with less demographic coherence and suggests a resurgence that is also a difference at the level of both genre and audience.
Despite the usefulness of these different histories I want to supplement them with a focus on earlier films, and earlier modes of distributing and understanding adolescence, and thus suggest the importance of a different kind of continuity underpinning what we now call teen film.
A critical historiography of teen film can find references to films about adolescence before the s in the most influential accounts of teen film as a genre.
Doherty not only claims that teen film was invented in the s but restricts teen film proper to — Beginning with the recognition that films about adolescence made in the s could remain intelligibly about adolescence for adolescents of the s, Considine emphasises continuity as well as development in the cinema of adolescence.
I do not aim here to resolve these histories into one that is singularly complete, but I want to claim something stronger than that films about adolescence before the s are important precursors to teen film.
I think we can approach the history of teen film much as we would a history of fashion—noticing that while, in retrospect, particular styles stand out as characterising periods, even for such a retrospective eye particular conventions and even dramatic changes can become more or less visible over time.
But the underpinning idea of fashion is something else, a conceptual apparatus with a longer history wound into other fields. I want to consider here the clear emergence of teen film conventions in pres films about adolescents: There are certainly narrative conventions that help define teen film: Engaging with teen film as a genre means thinking about the certainties and questions concerning adolescence represented in these conventions, including the role of teen film in producing and disseminating them.
The teen in teen movie means something more like youth. Schulberg published a short opinion piece in the U. Schulberg associates film with a mesh of promise and vitality, vulnerability and development, that we still associate with adolescence.
He claims here that the contemporary film industry is still maturing and not yet predictable although it has developed unique characteristics. The modern idea of adolescence is quite different from the markers of majority and ideas about education of earlier periods.
Public discussion of the threat of mass culture and the vulnerable impressionability of film audiences frequently met up with concerns about adolescence as an especially vulnerable and important life stage. Even in the s and s, both cinema and adolescence were already associated with rapid technological and cultural change and diverse authorities opined about what films youth should see and whether or not film could be good for youth.
The modern idea of adolescence underpinning these discussions is often associated with American sociologist G. Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education,  was directly indebted to contemporary European debates about psychological and social development and especially to the work of Sigmund Freud.
After World War I, a range of images of modern life strengthened relatively new presumptions that the problems of adolescence not only revealed but manifested and predicted broader social problems. These popular representations of adolescence were not just reflected in but also drew on the social sciences, like sociology and psychology, expanding at the same time as the expansion of cinema.
That is, the idea of adolescence to which we are now accustomed, and on which teen film today still depends, was produced by interactions between social and cultural theory, public debate, and popular culture.
Psychoanalysis is an important example. InHall brought Freud and Carl Jung to lecture in the United States, establishing the influence of psychoanalysis there. For Freud, adolescence was not a passage into adult roles for which childhood had been a training ground.
Instead it was a complicated clash between new sexual capacity, already conflicting and often inexpressible fears, ideals, and desires built up and elaborated in childhood, and the new social expectations of immanent adulthood.
Psychoanalytic ideas about adolescence shaped new approaches to education and the family across a wide range of experts and institutions.Introduction. Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when you are under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both your mental and physical well being.
Essay Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of development.
Erikson has theorised developmental stages of growth into tasks. Of Eriksons' theoretical tasks, one task describes the theory of intimacy versus isolation.
This task theory can be examined using the normative crisis model. Adolescence is a period of Storm and Stress Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal.
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