Essays in philosophy, politics and economics by Thomas R. Wells Thursday, 14 November Moral philosophy about global warming What contribution can moral philosophers make to public reasoning about global warming?
The level of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere is only parts per million. Ninety to 95 percent of the greenhouse effect is due to water vapor. There are humidity measurements going back toand they show no upward trend. So why assume positive feedback? Although Obama has denounced elevated carbon dioxide levels as "carbon pollution," greenhouse operators commonly increase the level of CO2 to 1, ppm or more to enhance plant growth.
The Wilkins Ice Shelf lies off the peninsula in the top left corner, and shows extensive warming. Overall, Antarctica shows little warming, and many areas to the East right are almost cooling. Historically, warm periods are associated with favorable climate. The environmentalist agenda of renewables, solar energy, conservation, and world government was put together in the s in response to the energy crisis and to the overpopulation scare.
At that time, most scientists thought the Earth was cooling. Steven Schneider, founding father of the AGW movement, was a global cooling believer in the early s. Carbon dioxide can be absorbed by promoting plant growth, an angle overlooked by the mainstream media.
In fact, the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already resulted in an increase in plant growth.
If that's not enough, iron filings can be dumped at sea to encourage the growth of marine plants. One climate science scandal after another has been exposed. The Climategate emails show hoaxers scurrying to "hide the decline. The first response of AGW backers is name calling and attempts to shut down the discussion.
Argument is a last resort. History Origin InFrench scientist Joseph Fourier suggested that although the atmosphere allowed sunlight to pass through to warm the Earth, it blocked "dark heat" infrared radiation from the Earth and thus prevented energy from being transferred back into space.
All the same, it may not be fair to blame Fourier for the greenhouse effect meme. He also discusses convection as an alternative explanation and, as a good scientist, recommends an experiment to resolve the issue. InIrish scientist John Tyndall measured the absorption of radiant energy by various gases in the atmosphere.
He concluded that water vapor was the gas primarily responsible. It could therefore be considered the warming agent that Fourier hypothesized.
Tyndall suggested that changes in humidity could bring about climate change. Arrhenius attributes his misunderstanding of the science to Fourier: He took a tube of carbon dioxide, shined black body radiation on it, and varied the pressure on the gas. Increasing the pressure led to only a slight increase in absorption.
He concluded that radiation absorption by CO2 is already nearly saturated, so the emission of additional gas into the atmosphere would have little effect. High enough in the atmosphere, there must be an unsaturated layer of carbon dioxide capable of absorbing radiation. The greater the density of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the lower this layer would be.
A lower layer would retransmit more radiation to the lower atmosphere and would therefore be responsible for greater warming. Ekholm's insight was lost on his fellow scientists. It was not rediscovered until the s. This argument never caught on. The idea that adding CO2 would change the climate, "was never widely accepted and was abandoned when it was found that all the long-wave radiation [that would be] absorbed by CO2 is [already] absorbed by water vapor," the American Meteorological Society concluded in Disproving the greenhouse effect Finally performing the experiment Fourier had recommended a century earlier, Robert Wood showed in that energy is transferred from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere primarily through convection currents.
In Wood's experiment, the temperature in a glass box was compared to that in a box with a top made of halite rock salt. Halite allows sunlight to enter, but blocks infrared. Infrared re-radiation and the greenhouse effect play "a very small part," both in the atmosphere and in literal greenhouses, Wood concluded.
Research went forward as the lonely project of English scientist Guy Callendar. Callendar collected historical temperature readings and CO2 measurements and published the results in Radio telescope observations in showed that the temperature of Venus was even higher than Wildt's theory could explain.
The planet that had been considered "Earth's twin" just a few years earlier was revealed as a sulfurous vision of hell.Essay on Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions to Global Warming The Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions to Global Warming Global warming is a problem that threatens the whole world.
Though it has had little noticeable impact on the world so far, its potential impact could be disastrous which is why global warming has become an issue ever . Global Warming Merits Widespread Moral Outrage Essay - Global Warming Disaster Merits Widespread Moral Outrage Global warming will take its toll of human life to the tune of hundreds of thousands every year.
According to John Broome--the Chair of Moral Philosophy at Oxford--these unfortunate victims of society's next big challenge will die by. How do people learn about global warming?
That – more than the merits of any scientific argument – is the most interesting question posed by . But global warming is an increase in global. A recent essay declares that "selfish" Americans are much more skeptical of “global warming” than citizens of other countries.
A recent essay declares that "selfish" Americans are much more skeptical of “global warming” than citizens of other countries. Yet accusing more than half the nation of such moral turpitude seems remarkably.
I have argued in this essay that the phenomenon of global warming requires moral philosophers to take up a pragmatic orientation directed at improving global public reasoning and thence political decision-making about it.
Its intellectual complexity presents challenges for its moral understanding that we should take on. A World at War We’re under attack from climate change—and our only hope is to mobilize like we did in WWII.