Methods of non-financial motivation of staff.
Like the casebook method the case method calls upon students to take on the role of an actual person faced with a difficult problem. Decision-forcing cases[ edit ] A decision-forcing case is a kind of decision Harvard business review case study method.
Like any other kinds of decision games, a decision-forcing case puts students in a role of person faced with a problem often called the "protagonist" and asks them to devise, defend, discuss, and refine solutions to that problem. However, in sharp contrast to decision games that contain fictional elements, decision-forcing cases are based entirely upon reliable descriptions of real events.
A decision-forcing case is also a kind of case study. That is, it is an examination of an incident that took place at some time in the past.
However, in contrast to a retrospective case study, which provides a complete description of the events in question, a decision-forcing case is based upon an "interrupted narrative.
In other words, while retrospective case studies ask students to analyze past decisions with the aid of hindsight, decision-forcing cases ask students to engage problems prospectively.
Thus, in engaging these problems, students necessarily engage in some degree of role play. Some case teachers, such as those of the Marine Corps University, place a great deal of emphasis on role play, to the point of addressing each student with the name and titles of the protagonist of the case.
A student playing the role of a king, for example, is asked "Your Majesty, what are your orders? Also known as "the rest of the story", "the epilogue", or particularly at Harvard University "the 'B' case", the description of the historical solution can take the form of a printed article, a video, a slide presentation, a short lecture, or even an appearance by the protagonist.
Whatever the form of the description of the historical solution, the case teacher must take care to avoid giving the impression that the historical solution is the "right answer.
Some case teachers will refrain from providing the historical solution to students. One reason for not providing the historical solution is to encourage students to do their own research about the outcome of the case.
Another is to encourage students to think about the decision after the end of the class discussion. There are, however, decision-forcing cases in which students play the role of a single protagonist who is faced with a series of problems, two or more protagonists dealing with the same problem, or two or more protagonists dealing with two or more related problems.
Decision-forcing staff rides[ edit ] A decision-forcing case conducted in the place where the historical decisions at the heart of the case were made is called a "decision-forcing staff ride. To avoid confusion between "decision-forcing staff rides" and staff rides of other sorts, the Case Method Project at the Marine Corps University in Quantico, Virginia, has adopted the term "Russell Ride" to describe the decision-forcing staff rides that it conducts.
In this system, pieces of bread serve as a metaphor for narrative elements i. A decision-forcing case in which one protagonist is faced with two problems is thus a "triple-decker case.
Commonly used case materials include articles that were composed for the explicit purpose of informing case discussion, secondary works initially produced for other purposes, historical documents, artifacts, video programs, and audio programs.
Case materials are made available to students at a variety times in the course of a decision-forcing case. Materials that provide background are distributed at, or before, the beginning of the class meeting.
Materials that describe the solution arrived at by the protagonist and the results of that solution are passed out at, or after, the end of the class meeting.
These are called "the B-case", "the rest of the story", or "the reveal. These are often referred to as "handouts. Most of the case materials that are available from case clearing houses and academic publishers are of the refined variety.
Raw case materials are those that were initially produced for reasons other than the informing of a case discussion. These include newspaper articles, video and audio news reports, historical documents, memoirs, interviews, and artifacts.Global. Faculty members from Harvard Business School and Harvard Graduate School of Education launched the Public Education Leadership Project (PELP) to create and disseminate knowledge about how to manage urban school districts.
The old, tired methods of employee performance management are broken. Astute organizations are taking note and doing something about it. That shift is a topic of the latest issue of the Harvard Business Review, in a piece penned by employee engagement expert Marcus Buckingham of “Strengths Finder” fame, and Ashley Goodall, director of leader development at Deloitte Services in New York.
An online forum for all educators and participants in the Case Method Teaching Seminar.
This is a place to exchange ideas and insights on participant-centered learning in the classroom. She holds an MBA from the Harvard Business School and a Ph.D. in Entrepreneurship and Ethics from the University of Virginia. Harvard Business Review. Over 80 percent of cases sold throughout the world are written by HBS faculty, who produce approximately new cases per year.
Simply put, we believe the case method is the best way to prepare students for the challenges of leadership. When students are presented with a . Publication Date: April 01, Helps students fully capitalize on the case method. Succinctly introduces the benefits, format, and process while offering lots of "how-to" advice.
Chris Christensen described case method teaching as "the art of managing uncertainty".
Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Review; Christensen Center for Teaching & Learning. Teaching by the Case Method Christensen Center → → Chris Christensen Harvard Business School.