Anawrahta was the founder of the Pagan Kingdom. Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Baganthe capital of the Pagan Kingdom.
Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Baganthe capital of the Pagan Kingdom.
Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the s—s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Kingdomthe first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.
Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10, Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions — toppled the four-century-old kingdom in Pagan's collapse was followed by years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century.
Like the Burmans four History of burma earlier, Shan migrants who arrived with the Mongol invasions stayed behind.
Several competing Shan States came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley. The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizeable powers, Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdomemerged. In the west, a politically fragmented Arakan was under competing influences of its stronger neighbours until the Kingdom of Mrauk U unified the Arakan coastline for the first time in The kingdom was a protectorate of the Bengal Sultanate at different time periods.
Having held off Ava, the Mon -speaking Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next years.
In contrast, constant warfare left Ava greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from onward. Despite the wars, cultural synchronisation continued. This period is considered a golden age for Burmese culture. Burmese literature "grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse", and the second generation of Burmese law codes as well as the earliest pan-Burma chronicles emerged.
Taungoo and colonialism Toungoo Empire under Bayinnaung in Political unification returned in the midth century, due to the efforts of Taungooa former vassal state of Ava.
Taungoo's young, ambitious king Tabinshwehti defeated the more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Toungoo—Hanthawaddy War — However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death incompletely collapsing by The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in and Siam in The Restored Toungoo kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features would continue well into the 19th century.
The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs.
Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years.
From the s onward, the kingdom was beset with repeated Meithei raids into Upper Myanmar and a nagging rebellion in Lan Na. Hanthawaddy forces sacked Ava inending the year-old Toungoo Dynasty. After the fall of Ava, the Konbaung—Hanthawaddy War involved one resistance group under Alaungpaya defeating the Restored Hanthawaddy, and byhe had reunited all of Myanmar and Manipur, and driven out the French and the British, who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy.
Burma and Siam went to war untilbut all resulted in a stalemate, exchanging Tenasserim to Burma and Lan Na to Ayutthaya.
Faced with a powerful China and a resurgent Ayutthaya in the east, King Bodawpaya turned west, acquiring ArakanManipur and Assam It was the second-largest empire in Burmese history but also one with a long ill-defined border with British India.
King Mindon Min tried to modernise the kingdom, and in narrowly avoided annexation by ceding the Karenni States. The British, alarmed by the consolidation of French Indochinaannexed the remainder of the country in the Third Anglo-Burmese War in Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo's administrative reforms, and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion.
For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley. British Burma — Main articles: British troops firing a mortar on the Mawchi road, July The eighteenth century saw Burmese rulers, whose country had not previously been of particular interest to European traders, seek to maintain their traditional influence in the western areas of AssamManipur and Arakan.
Pressing them, however, was the British East India Companywhich was expanding its interests eastwards over the same territory.
Over the next sixty years, diplomacy, raids, treaties and compromises continued until, after three Anglo-Burmese Wars —Britain proclaimed control over most of Burma.More information about Burma is available on the Burma Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
U.S.-BURMA RELATIONS The United States supports a peaceful, prosperous, and democratic . Colonial historians of Burma claimed that its earliest civilizations had been founded under Indian influence and could not date back much beyond CE. However, recent research indicates that civilization in Burma’s Irawaddy valley is very old – 3, years ago its inhabitants were farming rice.
Myanmar (English pronunciation below; Burmese:), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast.
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13, years ago to the present day. The earliest inhabitants of recorded history were a Tibeto-Burman-speaking people who established the Pyu city-states ranged as far south as Pyay and adopted Theravada Buddhism.
Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast benjaminpohle.com the country’s official English name, which it had held since , was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the .
A chronology of key events in the history of Myanmar (Burma) A chronology of key events in the history of Myanmar (Burma) - Toungoo dynasty, with Portuguese help, reunites country as Burma.