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Are the recurrent structures artifacts of distant common origins, are they simply random accidents, or do they reflect fundamental aspects of human cognition? Over and over, linguists have identified nearly identical grammatical conventions in seemingly unrelated languages scattered throughout the globe.
Alterations to language are introduced through many avenues, including the influence of other languages and changes in accents or pronunciation. That process also leads to the recurrent patterns across languages. In the study, the team created two miniature artificial languages to observe the language acquisition process.
The languages used suffixes on nouns to indicate subject or object. In two experiments, 40 undergraduates, whose only language was English, learned the eight verbs, 15 nouns, and grammatical structure of the artificial languages.
The training was spaced over four minute sessions and consisted of computer images, short animated clips, and audio recordings. Then participants were asked to describe a novel action clip using their newly learned language.
When faced with sentence constructions that could be confusing or ambiguous, the language learners in both experiments chose to alter the rules of the language they were taught in order to make their meaning clearer. They used case markers more often when the meaning of the subject and object might otherwise have caused unintended interpretations.
According to the researchers, the results provide evidence that humans seek a balance between clarity and ease. Participants could have chosen to be maximally clear by always providing the case markers.
Alternatively, they could have chosen to be maximally succinct by never providing the case markers. Instead, they provided case markers more often for those sentences that would otherwise have been more likely to be confused.
The findings also support the idea that language learners introduce common patterns, also known as linguistic universals, conclude the authors. The optional case marking that participants introduced in this experiment closely mirrors naturally occurring patterns in Japanese and Korean—when animate objects and inanimate subjects are more likely to receive case markings.
Experts believe the history of English itself might reflect these deep principles of how we learn language. Old English had cases and relatively free word order, as is still true for German, Jager said. But at some point pronunciation changes began to obscure the case endings, creating ambiguity.
In contemporary English, word order has become the primary signal by which speakers could decode the meaning, he said. In light of these findings, new generations can perhaps be seen as renewing language, rather than corrupting it, she adds.
Recent research has shown that these types of shortcuts appear only when their meaning is easily inferable from the context, he adds. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare.
He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years.
He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy.
His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management. Retrieved on September 29,from https:Described in Mirror, Mirror in the Brain in Science Daily (Nov.
6, ), mirror neurons were discovered as “an offshoot of studies examining hand and mouth movement in monkeys.” At first, it was suspected that they had the job of helping us imitate facial expressions or other basic communication behaviors.
Mirror 'Smiley' O'Brien is a mirror version of O'Brien from the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Through the Looking Glass" (3x19). After being Terran slave on the Terok Nor Station in the Mirror Universe, Smiley became the leader of Terran Rebellion.
About. MirrorBrain is an open source framework to run a content delivery network using mirror servers. It solves a challenge that many popular open source projects face - a flood of download requests, often magnitudes more than a single site could practically handle.
Dec 30, · 9 Mirrors, Phantom Limbs, And The Human Brain Neuroscientists are a wacky bunch, but, amazingly, experiments using mirrors on patients with phantom limbs have allowed researchers to learn a lot about how the brain works.
Mirrors in the Brain has ratings and 9 reviews. Nick said: This is the seminal work on mirror neurons. It's dense, and jargon-ridden: Therefore the /5.
MIRRORS IN ACTION PERFORMED by one person can activate motor pathways in another’s brain responsible for performing the same action. The second understands viscerally what the ﬁrst is doing because this mirror mechanism lets her experience it in own her mind. CARY WOLINSKY.