Additional information Introduction Many students tend to overuse direct quotations in their essays. Direct quotations should be used only when paraphrasing would change the effectiveness or meaning of the author's words or when the author is a noted authority and the idea could not be better expressed or said more succinctly. Although quotations are common in essays in the humanities, they are used less extensively in the social sciences, and rarely in scientific writing.
Slash essay edit ] Systems of scansion, and the assumptions often tacit or even subconscious that underlie them, are so numerous and contradictory that it is often difficult to tell whether differences Slash essay scansion indicate opposed metrical theories, conflicting understandings of a line's linguistic character, divergent practical goals, or whether they merely constitute a trivial argument over who has the "better ear" for verse.
To understand any form of scansion, it is necessary to appreciate the difference between meter and rhythm. The rhythm of language is infinitely varied; all aspects of language contribute to it: Lewis observes, "[i]f the scansion of a line meant all the phonetic facts, no two lines would scan the same way".
It is an ordering of language by means of an extremely limited subset of its characteristics.
In English and in many modern languages the language is ordered by syllabic stress. All other aspects of language are present, indeed they are vital to the rhythm of the verse; but they are not ordered by the meter.
However, marking stress is not the same as marking meter. A perfectly regular line of iambic pentameter may have anywhere from 2 to 9 stresses,  but it is still felt to exhibit 5 pulses or beats.
This can most easily be understood through the principle of relative stress: These phenomena are called "promotion" and "demotion".
Thus a syllable, regardless of its level of stress, that realizes a beat is ictic; and a syllable, regardless of its level of stress, that does not is nonictic. Ictus refers to the position within a line that is experienced as a beat, or to the syllable that fills it.
Brogan issues a stern warning about the temptations of overly detailed scansion: Since meter is a system of binary oppositions in which syllables are either marked or unmarked long or short; stressed or unstresseda binary code is all that is necessary to transcribe it.
It is natural to want to enrich scansion with other kinds of analyses which capture more of the phonological and syntactic structure of the line. But all such efforts exceed the boundary of strict metrical analysis, moving into descriptions of linguistic rhythm, and thus serve to blur or dissolve the distinction between meter and rhythm.
Strictly speaking, scansion marks which syllables are metrically prominent -- i. Scansions which take account of more levels of metrical degree than two, or intonation, or the timing of syllables are all guilty of overspecification.
For clarity, scansions that mark only ictus and nonictus will be called "metrical scansions", and those which mark stress or other linguistic characteristics will be called "rhythmic scansions".
Elements[ edit ] Minimally, graphic scansion requires only two symbols, designating ictic and non-ictic syllables. These symbols are typically placed over the first vowel in every syllable. Some prosodists indicate only ictic or, in rhythmic scansion, only stressed syllables, but this is not ideal since the number, position, and character of non-ictic syllables is also metrically significant.
Additionally, many prosodists divide a line into feet —the minimal repeated units—using the pipe symbol. When feet are thus designated, words that span feet are divided without hyphens, and any punctuation that occurs at a foot break is typically omitted.
Foot analysis tends to imply that there is a special relationship among syllables within feet which does not apply across feet, but this is doubtful. Finally, a caesura may be indicated. In the great majority of verse in English caesurae are not part of the metrical pattern, and generally it is better not to include them in English scansion.
If they are to be marked: The fourteener typically does have a metrical caesura; examples of style 1 and 2 are shown below: Because of the variety of stress levels in language, 2-level notation is not adequate for a rhythmic scansion of any sensitivity.
Yet, because of the confusion between rhythm and meter, the number of levels used is no sure indication of a prosodist's intent.Or, What I’ve Learned in 12 Years Writing about Energy ( words, about 25 minutes reading time) Folks who pay attention to energy and climate issues are regularly treated to two competing depictions of society’s energy options.
By Patrick Masell. The P Warhawk and A6M Zero were two prominent U.S. and Japanese fighters at the beginning of the Second World War.
Both had achieved admirable records. Kevin Hudson FY , 3/7/97, University of Auburn,. Editors note: this article was reprinted with the permission of the Auburn Dept of Forestry. The article has many references which are specific to the forestry industry and may vary from other commercial horticultural practices.
As you may remember, the original Splash was a romantic comedy that followed a man falling in love with a mermaid. It was an early hit for director Ron Howard and a massive stepping stone for. Being a 'Slash' fanfiction author myself, I find this assumption rather offensive and disheartening, so I decided that something needed to be done about it.
And thus my essay that not only argues against calling slash authors lazy, but also argues against other reasons that said authors are often flamed.
Reid and Mark Zuckerberg spent a lot of time in / focused on immigration reform. There were ups and downs and the fight for real reform continues, but a highlight was Linkedin hosting a hackathon for “DREAMer” immigrants.