What were the principal causes of colonial violence and warfare of the late seventeenth century

The Origins of the Yamasee War Reconsidered http: Presented online in association with the History Cooperative. But LeJau was correct. When the storm finally broke in Aprilit nearly washed South Carolina off the map.

What were the principal causes of colonial violence and warfare of the late seventeenth century

Calculated from Rebecca Horn, Postconquest Coyoacan: Stanford University Press,p. The overall role of Mexico within the Hapsburg Empire was in flux as well.

Nothing signals the change as much as the emergence of silver mining as the principal source of Mexican exportables in the second half of the sixteenth century. Silver Mining While silver mining and smelting was practiced before the conquest, it was never a focal point of indigenous activity.

But for the Europeans, Mexico was largely about silver mining. Again, there has been much controversy of the precise amounts of silver that Mexico sent to the Iberian Peninsula. What we do know certainly is that Mexico and the Spanish Empire became the leading source of silver, monetary reserves, and thus, of high-powered money.

Over the course of the colonial period, most sources agree that Mexico provided nearly 2 billion pesos dollars or roughly 1.

What were the principal causes of colonial violence and warfare of the late seventeenth century

The graph below provides a picture of the remissions of all Mexican silver to both Spain and to the Philippines taken from the work of John TePaske. This production has to be considered in both its domestic and international dimensions.

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The residual claimants on silver production were many and varied. There were, of course the silver miners themselves in Mexico and their merchant financiers and suppliers. They ranged from some of the wealthiest people in the world at the time, such as the Count of Reglawho donated warships to Spain in the eighteenth century, to individual natives in Zacatecas smelting their own stocks of silver ore.

In the Iberian Peninsula, income from American silver mines ultimately supported not only a class of merchant entrepreneurs in the large port cities, but virtually the core of the Spanish political nation, including monarchs, royal officials, churchmen, the military and more.

And finally, silver flowed to those who valued it most highly throughout the world. Mining centers tended to crowd out growth elsewhere because the rate of return for successful mines exceeded what could be gotten in commerce, agriculture and manufacturing.

Because silver was the numeraire for Mexican prices—Mexico was effectively on a silver standard—variations in silver production could and did have substantial effects on real economic activity elsewhere in New Spain.

For this reason, the expansion of Mexican silver production in the years after was never unambiguously accompanied by overall, as opposed to localized prosperity. Mexican silver accounted for well over three-quarters of exports by value into the nineteenth century as well.

If there was any threat to the American Empire, royal officials thought that Mexico, and increasingly, Cuba, were worth holding on to. From a fiscal standpoint, Mexico had become just that important. The ensuring conflict, known as the War of Spanish Succession, came to an end in The dynasty he represented was known as the Bourbons.

For the next century of so, they were to determine the fortunes of New Spain. One of them dealt with raising revenue and the other was the international position of the imperial economy, specifically, the volume and value of trade.

A series of statistics calculated by Richard Garner shows that the share of Mexican output or estimated GDP taken by taxes grew by percent between and The number of taxes collected by the Royal Treasury increased from 34 to between and An entire array of new taxes and fiscal placemen came to Mexico.

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They affected and alienated everyone, from the wealthiest merchant to the humblest villager. If they did nothing else, the Bourbons proved to be expert tax collectors. From the mid-sixteenth century onwards, ocean-going trade between Spain and the Americas was, in theory, at least, closely regulated and supervised.

Ships in convoy flota sailed together annually under license from the monarchy and returned together as well. Since so much silver specie was carried, the system made sense, even if the flotas made a tempting target and the problem of contraband was immense. The point of departure was Seville and later, Cadiz.

Under pressure from other outports in the late eighteenth century, the system was finally relaxed. As a consequence, the volume and value of trade to Mexico increased as the price of importables fell.

Import-competing industries in Mexico, especially textiles, suffered under competition and established merchants complained that the new system of trade was too loose.What Were The Principal Causes Of Colonial Violence And Warfare Of The Late Seventeenth Century Ch3 Review 1.

Most seventeenth-century English migrants to the North American colonies were laborers. 2. By , English colonial landowners began to rely more heavily on African slavery because of a declining birthrate in England.


What were the principal causes of colonial violence and warfare of the late seventeenth century

Keeley describes several styles of primitive combat such as small raids, large raids, and massacres. All of these forms of warfare were used by primitive societies, a finding supported by other researchers. [28] Keeley explains that early war raids were not well organized, as the participants did.

what were the principle causes of colonial violence and warfare of the late 17th century. Historical Archaeology, Identity Formation, and the Interpretation of Ethnicity, because of its authors and two organizers-editors, is a solid contribution to the growing literature on the ability of historical archaeologists to explore one of the most basic human categorizations to appear since the rise of complex societies.

Publications of The Colonial Society of Massachusetts Volume 63 Seventeenth-Century New England a conference held by The Colonial Society of Massachusetts june 18 and 19, Nevertheless, the puritans were extremely religious and persecuted anyone who disagreed with their beliefs.

These people who disagreed were referred to as religious dissenters. These people once banished from their home, they went to back to England to help find or discover new communities or colonies in New England.

What were the principal causes of colonial violence